[без темы]  Это в русскоязычной вики
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Дата: Среда, Июль 29 6:29:01 2020

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Thermal (non-microwave background) temperature predictions Edit
1896 – Charles Édouard Guillaume estimates the "radiation of the stars" to be 5–6K.[109]
1926 – Sir Arthur Eddington estimates the non-thermal radiation of starlight in the galaxy "... by the formula E = σT4 the effective temperature corresponding to this density is 3.18° absolute ... black body"[110]
1930s – Cosmologist Erich Regener calculates that the non-thermal spectrum of cosmic rays in the galaxy has an effective temperature of 2.8 K
1931 – Term microwave first used in print: "When trials with wavelengths as low as 18 cm. were made known, there was undisguised surprise+that the problem of the micro-wave had been solved so soon." Telegraph & Telephone Journal XVII. 179/1
1934 – Richard Tolman shows that black-body radiation in an expanding universe cools but remains thermal
1938 – Nobel Prize winner (1920) Walther Nernst reestimates the cosmic ray temperature as 0.75K
1946 – Robert Dicke predicts "... radiation from cosmic matter" at <20 K, but did not refer to background radiation [111]
1946 – George Gamow calculates a temperature of 50 K (assuming a 3-billion year old universe),[112] commenting it "... is in reasonable agreement with the actual temperature of interstellar space", but does not mention background radiation.[113]
1953 – Erwin Finlay-Freundlich in support of his tired light theory, derives a blackbody temperature for intergalactic space of 2.3K [114] with comment from Max Born suggesting radio astronomy as the arbitrator between expanding and infinite cosmologies.
Microwave background radiation predictions and measurements Edit
1941 – Andrew McKellar detected the cosmic microwave background as the coldest component of the interstellar medium by using the excitation of CN doublet lines measured by W. S. Adams in a B star, finding an "effective temperature of space" (the average bolometric temperature) of 2.3 K[32][115]
1946 – George Gamow calculates a temperature of 50 K (assuming a 3-billion year old universe),[112] commenting it "... is in reasonable agreement with the actual temperature of interstellar space", but does not mention background radiation.
1948 – Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman estimate "the temperature in the universe" at 5 K. Although they do not specifically mention microwave background radiation, it may be inferred.[116]
1949 – Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman re-re-estimate the temperature at 28 K.
1953 – George Gamow estimates 7 K.[111]
1956 – George Gamow estimates 6 K.[111]
1955 – &#201;mile Le Roux of the Nan&#231;ay Radio Observatory, in a sky survey at &#955; = 33 cm, reported a near-isotropic background radiation of 3 kelvins, plus or minus 2.[111]
1957 – Tigran Shmaonov reports that "the absolute effective temperature of the radioemission background ... is 4±3 K".[117] It is noted that the "measurements showed that radiation intensity was independent of either time or direction of observation ... it is now clear that Shmaonov did observe the cosmic microwave background at a wavelength of 3.2 cm"[118][119]
1960s – Robert Dicke re-estimates a microwave background radiation temperature of 40 K[111][120]
1964 – A. G. Doroshkevich and Igor Dmitrievich Novikov publish a brief paper suggesting microwave searches for the black-body radiation predicted by Gamow, Alpher, and Herman, where they name the CMB radiation phenomenon as detectable.[121]
1964–65 – Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson measure the temperature to be approximately 3 K. Robert Dicke, James Peebles, P. G. Roll, and D. T. Wilkinson interpret this radiation as a signature of the big bang.
1966 – Rainer K. Sachs and Arthur M. Wolfe theoretically predict microwave background fluctuation amplitudes created by gravitational potential variations between observers and the last scattering surface (see Sachs-Wolfe effect)
1968 – Martin Rees and Dennis Sciama theoretically predict microwave background fluctuation amplitudes created by photons traversing time-dependent potential wells
1969 – R. A. Sunyaev and Yakov Zel'dovich study the inverse Compton scattering of microwave background photons by hot electrons (see Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect)
1983 – Researchers from the Cambridge Radio Astronomy Group and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory first detect the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect from clusters of galaxies
1983 – RELIKT-1 Soviet CMB anisotropy experiment was launched.
1990 – FIRAS on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite measures the black body form of the CMB spectrum with exquisite precision, and shows that the microwave background has a nearly perfect black-body spectrum and thereby strongly constrains the density of the intergalactic medium.
January 1992 – Scientists that analysed data from the RELIKT-1 report the discovery of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background at the Moscow astrophysical seminar.[122]
1992 – Scientists that analysed data from COBE DMR report the discovery of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background.[123]
1995 – The Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope performs the first high resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background.
1999 – First measurements of acoustic oscillations in the CMB anisotropy angular power spectrum from the TOCO, BOOMERANG, and Maxima Experiments. The BOOMERanG experiment makes higher quality maps at intermediate resolution, and confirms that the universe is "flat".
2002 – Polarization discovered by DASI.[124]
2003 – E-mode polarization spectrum obtained by the CBI.[125] The CBI and the Very Small Array produces yet higher quality maps at high resolution (covering small areas of the sky).
2003 – The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe spacecraft produces an even higher quality map at low and intermediate resolution of the whole sky (WMAP provides no high-resolution data, but improves on the intermediate resolution maps from BOOMERanG).
2004 – E-mode polarization spectrum obtained by the CBI.[126]
2004 – The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver produces a higher quality map of the high resolution structure not mapped by WMAP.
2005 – The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich Array begin the first surveys for very high redshift clusters of galaxies using the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect.
2005 – Ralph A. Alpher is awarded the National Medal of Science for his groundbreaking work in nucleosynthesis and prediction that the universe expansion leaves behind background radiation, thus providing a model for the Big Bang theory.
2006 – The long-awaited three-year WMAP results are released, confirming previous analysis, correcting several points, and including polarization data.
2006 – Two of COBE's principal investigators, George Smoot and John Mather, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006 for their work on precision measurement of the CMBR.
2006–2011 – Improved measurements from WMAP, new supernova surveys ESSENCE and SNLS, and baryon acoustic oscillations from SDSS and WiggleZ, continue to be consistent with the standard Lambda-CDM model.
2010 – The first all-sky map from the Planck telescope is released.
2013 – An improved all-sky map from the Planck telescope is released, improving the measurements of WMAP and extending them to much smaller scales.
2014 – On March 17, 2014, astrophysicists of the BICEP2 collaboration announced the detection of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum, which if confirmed, would provide clear experimental evidence for the theory of inflation.[65][66][67][68][70][127] However, on 19 June 2014, lowered confidence in confirming the cosmic inflation findings was reported.[70][72][73]
2015 – On January 30, 2015, the same team of astronomers from BICEP2 withdrew the claim made on the previous year. Based on the combined data of BICEP2 and Planck, the European Space Agency announced that the signal can be entirely attributed to dust in the Milky Way.[128]
2018 – The final data and maps from the Planck telescope is released, with improved measurements of the polarization on large scales.[129]
2019 – Planck telescope analyses of their final 2018 data continue to be released.[130]

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